In Italy and Spain, GDP per capita was just below the EU27 average. Cyprus was around 10% below the average, while Malta, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Greece and Portugal were between nearly 15% and 25% lower. Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Hungary and Latvia were between 30% and 40% lower than the average, while Romania and Bulgaria were more than 50% below the average.
Actual Individual Consumption per capita in the Member States ranged from 48% to 141% of the EU27 average
While GDP per capita is often used as an indicator of countries' level of welfare, it is not the only such indicator. An alternative welfare indicator, better adapted to reflect the situation of households, is Actual Individual Consumption (AIC) per capita. Generally, levels of AIC per capita are more homogeneous than those of GDP but still there are substantial differences between the Member States. In 2012, AIC per capita expressed in PPS ranged between 48% of the EU average in Romania to 141% in Luxembourg.