in the euro area.
Labour costs are made up of wages & salaries and non-wage costs such as employers' social contributions. The share of non-wage costs in the whole economy was 23.7% in the EU28 and 25.9% in the euro area, varying between 8.0% in Malta and 33.3% in Sweden.
Growth in labour costs
Between 2008 and 2013, hourly labour costs in the whole economy expressed in euro have risen by 10.2% in the EU28 and by 10.4% in the euro area. Within the euro area, the largest increases were recorded in Austria (+18.9%), Slovakia (+17.0%) and Finland (+15.9%). Decreases were observed in Greece (-18.6%) and Portugal (-5.1%).
For Member States outside the euro area, and expressed in national currency, the largest increases in hourly labour costs in the whole economy between 2008 and 2013 were registered in Bulgaria (+44.1%) and Romania (+32.8%), and the smallest in Croatia (+0.7%), Lithuania (+5.0%), the United Kingdom (+6.3%) and Latvia (+6.9%). When comparing labour cost estimates over time, it should be noted that data for those Member States outside the euro area are influenced by exchange rate movements if analysed in euro.