In 2013, Malta (92% of total government debt), the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom (both 90%), Belgium and Slovenia (both 87%), Slovakia (86%), France and Italy (both 84%) registered the highest proportions of debt financed by securities. The use of loans was highest in Estonia (86%), Greece (75%), Cyprus (59%) and Latvia (54%). The use of currency and deposits was in general very low, except in Ireland (10%), the United Kingdom (9%) and Italy (8%).
Government debt held by non-residents ranged from 82% in Finland to 2% in Luxembourg
There was a significant difference between Member States in which sector held the government debt. In 2013, the share of public debt held by the non-resident sector was highest in Finland (82% of total government debt), Latvia (80%), Austria (72%), Lithuania (70%), Slovenia (69%) and Portugal (66%). The largest shares of debt held by the resident financial sector were observed in Luxembourg (98%), Romania (71%) and Croatia (63%). Generally, 10% or less of debt was held by the resident non-financial sector, with the exception of Poland (34%), Malta (33%) and Italy (13%).